In order to get white cabbage seeds of the highest possible quality, you will have to work hard. But then your sowing material will be much better than what is sold in the store, because you will select only healthy mother liquors, avoiding re-sorting. Before planting, do not forget to treat the seeds of cabbage so that they sprout faster and are not exposed to infections so much.
Instructions for Obtaining White Cabbage Seeds: Planting Queen Cells
Obtaining cabbage seeds is possible in your own garden. To do this, grow queen cells and collect seeds from them. The mother liquor is a plant of cabbage of the first year of life with a vegetative bud (head of cabbage, head of cabbage, stem stalk).
A brief instruction on obtaining white cabbage seeds is as follows.
Before planting cabbage for seeds, only the healthy, highest quality, selected heads of cabbage of the variety that is supposed to be propagated are selected for the mother liquors, better than the late and late varieties.
From selective cabbage, it is required that the head of cabbage make up as much as possible the mass of the whole plant, and the stump and the outer green leaves make up the smallest part.
Therefore, low-growing plants with a thin stump, short petioles and small outer leaves at the head of the head are selected for mother plants. When harvesting cabbage of the first year, choose the best, largest and healthy plants, and dig them along with the roots. When digging, make sure that there is no keel on the roots.
Cleaning must be done before frost. If the plants got frozen at minus 5 ° С, then after harvesting it is necessary to wait about a week for the plants to “move away” from the effects of freezing.
The mother liquors are cleaned with a root system and a lump of earth. Dip the plant roots in a clay mash, break off rosette leaves, leaving 2-3 coverts, and store them in the basement separately from food supplies, at a temperature of 1 to 2 ° C. If the temperature drops below 0 ° C, the mother liquors will freeze and get sick after planting, and if the temperature rises to +10 ° C, then a bunch of leaves will grow instead of peduncles. Plants are suspended or folded into beads. 30 days before planting, the temperature is raised to 5 ° C, this is especially important for late-ripening varieties. During storage, it is better not to disturb and not to clean the cabbage.
In late March-early April, queen cells are prepared for planting. Before planting cabbage on seeds, the plants are inspected and cleaned of rotten roots, then the head of cabbage is cut into a cone so that its diameter at the bottom is 12–20 cm. For 2-3 weeks before planting in the ground, the stumps are grown and lightened. They are laid in the light in stacks with their roots inward and layered with humus or peat, watered with slurry. Stacks are placed outdoors, protecting from drying, freezing and steaming.
How to Plant and Grow Cabbage on Seeds
There is another way to get cabbage seeds in your garden. In the middle zone of Russia, especially in the northern regions, the cold period of the year is very long and it is extremely difficult or impossible to keep mother liquors at all. Experienced gardeners use a different method. In order to preserve the main or final bud, which always gives stronger stems than the lateral buds, when cutting out the stump, the whole stump is cut out of the stump with a long knife. Kocher for seeds is stored in the basement. They are planted in pots with good soil in the fall. The root perfectly during storage and give offspring. In the spring they are planted without any damage to the roots. The plants pampered in the basement should be shaded from the direct sun for the first time.
For planting cabbage on the seeds, areas with fertile soil are allocated, which are freed from snow earlier than others. In the fall, under digging, they are fertilized with manure or compost 4-6 kg / m2. In the spring, phosphoric (20 g / m2) and potash fertilizers (10g / m2) are introduced. To plant cabbage on seeds, nitrogen fertilizers are given in fertilizing as necessary, 15-20 g / m2.
On the prepared site, the testes are planted in late April – early May. With a later planting, they take root worse, seed yield is reduced. Before planting, the roots are dipped in a creamy mixture of clay and mullein (1: 1) with the addition of Fitosporin-M.
Planting is carried out according to the scheme of 70 × 50 cm. Fertilizers are applied to the wells: 300-400 g of compost or humus and 25 g of superphosphate. All mix well with the soil. They plant the stump obliquely, much deeper than it grew in the first year of life, under the head of the head and condense the earth at the roots. Plants watered and protect the first time from sunburn and frost. During the period of growth of seed plants, plantings are watered, loosened, weed and fed.
The landing area should be well lit by the sun. To grow cabbage for seeds, the garden bed needs to be watered regularly, the earth should not dry out. When the stems appear and bloom, be sure to tie them up. Shoots are up to a meter long, so if they are not tied, they can break. It is also desirable that there are no strong winds in the area.
How to Collect White Cabbage Seeds
During flowering, a cabbage beetle may attack the cabbage. Then you have to work with your hands – shake bugs in a bucket of water. Do not use chemicals because bees and bumblebees pollinating flowers will suffer.
Plants often form large enough shoots on which all the seeds do not have time to ripen. So that they do not weaken the plants, after tying a sufficient number of pods, unnecessary “tails” are cut off at the peduncles. Sometimes much more stems appear than the plant is able to feed. The weaker ones are removed, like all offspring from the bottom of the stoker.
The testes bloom within 25-30 days, the seeds ripen in 40-50 days. The period of vegetation of the testes is 90-130 days.
How to collect cabbage seeds in order to have your own planting material? Pods are selected selectively, you should not wait for the seeds to ripen, otherwise, the first, best seeds will spill out of the cracked pods. From one plant, you can get 50 g of seeds. They are removed from the pods and dried. They retain germination for 3-4 years. The seeds obtained are best stored in hermetically sealed containers, for example, in tightly closed glass jars.
Treatment of Cabbage Seeds Before Planting: Soaking, Disinfection, and Germination
Preplant planting of cabbage seeds is a common necessary requirement for absolutely all cases.
First, you need to select the largest (about 2 mm in diameter) seeds and place them for several minutes in a solution of sodium chloride (3-5%), then rinse the solid ones that have settled on the bottom three times under running water and dry them slightly.
Secondly, in order to disinfect cabbage seeds from possible internal and external diseases (bacteriosis, downy mildew, keel, etc.), the selected seeds should be heated for 20–25 minutes at a temperature of 50–60 ° С in hot water (in a thermos) , cool 1 minute in cold and dry.
After that, in order to improve the growth rate, it is advisable to soak them for 12 hours in a solution of trace elements (growth stimulants) at room temperature (20-25 ° C). As a rule, several ready-made mixtures include several elements – potassium permanganate, boric acid, ammonium molybdenum acid, copper sulfate – but for soaking, individual components can also be used (for example, 0.5 g of molybdate and boric acid per 1 liter of water) or generally prepare an extract from ash (insist on a 2% solution of wood ash for 2 days).
The cabbage seeds washed and dried after such a soaking can be considered ready for sowing, although they can also be sprouted to accelerate the emergence of seedlings.
To do this, they should be soaked for 5-6 hours in clean water, put in a small strainer or cloth (with a layer of no more than 4 cm) and transferred to a shaded warm place (18-20 ° C). For 1-2 days, the seeds should be stirred from time to time so that they do not clump and sprayed so that they do not dry out, and on the third day with the onset of active germination – slightly dry and sow.
Cabbage seeds that have been treated for illness and when dried can be stored for some time (separately from untreated) in a dry, warm place. Already sprouted seeds under unfavorable conditions for sowing (the greenhouse is not ready, the weather does not allow) should be stored unharvested and only in coolness – in the lower compartment of the refrigerator. But ideally, of course, it is advisable to plan ahead and optimally combine the processing process and the timing of sowing seeds.
Aloe is known to produce biologically active substances when picking leaves and placing them in the refrigerator for several days. It is these substances that are most valuable in this plant. Therefore, if you want to disinfect your seeds in this way, soak the leaves at 2 ° C for a week, then squeeze the juice from the leaves, dilute it with water in a ratio of 1: 1, or use undiluted.
Garlic is also widely known for its antibacterial properties. You can apply to soak finely chopped cloves of garlic or squeezed juice, diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 3, is a solution to disinfect cabbage seeds. Place the seeds in this solution for 1 hour, then rinse and dry to flow.
In order to prepare cabbage seeds for planting, in order to accelerate the development of plants, the treatment of seed with growth hormones is used. These include heteroauxin, epin, succinic acid, root. Stimulants act on seeds as growth accelerators, contribute to the emergence of friendly seedlings.
Germination of cabbage seeds is recommended, as planting seeds with sprouts accelerates germination times. But it should be borne in mind that the sprouts, in order to avoid damage, should be no more than half the seed. But first, you can apply a kind of “deception” of the seed, or, in other words, create an imitation of natural conditions. Plants must go through certain stages of development, namely, before the start of the growing season (development, enhanced growth), a dormant period at low temperatures (winter conditions) is mandatory. So, to prepare cabbage seeds for sowing, place the soaked seeds in a refrigerator, keep them there, at temperatures around 4-5 ° C. Nothing bad will happen if the temperature drops below 0 ° C. This procedure is called stratification.